Antibodies are immune system proteins. They work in reaction to foreign substances entering the body. These foreign molecules are antigens, and the immune system recognizes them. This results in antibodies that can attach to the specific antigen. B cells are responsible for antibody production, an essential function of the immune system.
Antibody production techniques have advanced. Thus, resulting in a diversity of antibody synthesis methods. We can use hybridoma cells to produce monoclonal antibodies in vitro. But they produce polyclonal antibodies using rabbits. Read on as we discuss the steps involved in antibody production.
How are Antibodies Produced?
When an organism’s immune system sees a foreign molecule for the first time, specialized cells like macrophages and dendritic cells capture the molecule and start breaking it down. This way, antigens become visible to B cell lymphocytes.
After exposure to the antigen, Somatic Hypermutation allows the B cell to make a new antibody. This process is Somatic Hypermutation. Each B cell lymphocyte makes a single antibody, reacting to a single epitope on each cell.
Rules for Antibody Production
Antibodies are serum immunoglobulins that can only bind to specific antigens. Antibodies are useful in various fields. They include experimental biology, medicine, biomedical research, diagnostic tests, and therapy. We can use polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies for these reasons. But, making them requires a lot of animals, which has a significant impact on animal welfare. This is why they’re not always used.
In the case of PAbs, they give animals antigen injections to make them make potent antibodies. Also, they take blood from them regularly to check for antibody responses and make antibodies during the experiment. However, in the case of MAbs, they give animals antigen or antigen injections to get specific B cells from their spleen or lymph nodes. They then use cells to make hybridomas. When it is impossible to make antibodies in the lab, they use animals to make antibodies through hybridomas in the belly cavity.
When deciding whether to make PAbs or MAbs, think about the use of the antibody and how long and how much money you have to make it. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum can be ready in 4-8 weeks and for very little money. But MAbs take three to six months to make. If you want to research many different things, you can use polyclonal antiserum. However, MAbs need to be specific to epitopes, which is why they are essential in some cases.
Steps Involved in Polyclonal Antibody Production
Think about the antigen’s quality, amount, and preparation when making antibodies. Purification makes it more important to have a lot of specific antibodies. It all comes down to how much antigen is injected. However, note that too much or too little can change how the immune system works.